- Corporate Security
- Governance, Risk, and Compliance
- Information Security
Cryptography is one of the more advanced topics of information security, and one whose understanding requires the most schooling and experience. It is difficult to get right because there are many approaches to encryption, each with advantages and disadvantages that need to be thoroughly understood by web solution architects and developers. In addition, serious cryptography research is typically based on advanced mathematics and number theory, providing a serious barrier to entry.
The proper and accurate implementation and usage of cryptography are extremely critical to its efficiency. A small mistake in configuration or coding will result in removing a large degree of the protection it affords and rending the crypto implementation useless against serious attacks.
Cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages. Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense, which is the transformation of plain data into encoded data by the use of encryption and the decoding of encoded data by decryption. Cryptography relies on two basic components: a cryptographic algorithm and a cryptographic key.
A cryptographic algorithm is a mathematical function used for encryption and decryption of data. The fundamental set of cryptographic algorithms can be divided into three groups:
In symmetric algorithms for a message encryption and decryption process, the same key is used.
In asymmetric cryptography different keys (a public key and its corresponding private key) must be used for encryption and decryption. The encrypting key is called the public key and the decrypting key is the private key. If you hold the private key, I can send you a message that only you can read.
These keys will also work in the opposite direction. That is, anything you encrypt with your private key, I can decrypt with your public key. You can use this to digitally sign a document (Digital Signature). Encrypt it with your private key, and I’ll be able to verify your signature by decrypting with your public key. I have confidence that the message came from you because only someone who holds your private key could have produced a working signature.
Asymmetric cryptography is synonymous with public key infrastructure (PKI).
There are three asymmetric algorithms in use today:
Diffie-Hellman is not quite suitable for establishing identity (Digital Signature) as described above, but the other two are. RSA is the most common today, but Elliptic Curve appears to be on its way to becoming the next standard.
The encryption key is a random string of bits, used in conjunction with a cryptographic algorithm to encrypt and decrypt (scrambling and unscrambling) data. The key acts as a lock to the encryption process. Knowledge of the appropriate key is required to encrypt or decrypt the data. Keys used in asymmetric cryptography are normally referred to as ‘private’ and ‘public’ keys, whilst those used in symmetric cryptography are referred to as ‘secret’ keys or ‘shared secrets’.
Encryption keys are designed with algorithms intended to ensure that every key is unpredictable and unique.
A public key and a private key mathematically related, whatever is encrypted with a Public Key may only be decrypted by its corresponding Private Key and vice versa.
The key length describes the amount of data required for the cryptographic key. In the case of cryptographic keys for computer-based algorithms, this is normally expressed as a number of bits. Some algorithms require a fixed key length, while others except variable key lengths. Typically, the larger the key the more difficult a well-written algorithm becomes to break. It is important to note that it is not normally possible to directly compare the comparative strength of different algorithms based on key length alone (!)
As highlighted above, crypto relies on keys to assure an object identity, provide confidentiality and integrity as well as non-repudiation. It is vital that the keys are adequately protected. Should a key be compromised, it can no longer be trusted.
Any system that has been compromised in any way should have all its cryptographic keys replaced.
Hash functions take some data of an arbitrary length (and possibly a key or password) and generate a fixed-length hash based on this input. Hash functions used in cryptography have the property that it is easy to calculate the hash, but difficult or impossible to re-generate the original input if only the hash value is known. In addition, hash functions useful for cryptography have the property that it is difficult to craft an initial input such that the hash will match a specific desired value.
SHA-256 is common hashing algorithm used today.
Password hashing functions are hashing algorithms designed explicitly for the verification of password credentials. Typically, you do not want to use a fast hashing algorithm such as SHA-256 for this purpose, as it enables rainbow table or brute force style attacks. There are specialized algorithms such as bCrypt or sCrypt which serve this purpose well – they are complex and CPU intensive to utilize, and they typically have a separate salt for every hash, making rainbow table style attacks impossible.
Password hashing functions also utilize a strategy known as key stretching to increase the cost complexity of the hash over time – which enables these algorithms to scale as computing power increases, without having to swap implementations. For bCrypt, it is important to use key stretching, and you should use a minimum of 10 salt rounds to ensure the hash is secure.
This standard specifies the requirements for the use of cryptography and all information technology systems used or developed in Resolvers.
1.1 Do not implement cryptographic algorithms on your own.
It is required that industry has proven implementations of algorithms (i.e. cryptographic toolkits that have stood the test of time), mature and trusted crypto libraries and security providers (e.g.: OpenSSL, JSSE, Bouncy Castle, Schannel,)
1.2 In the following sections, cryptographic algorithms are listed in order of preference. It is required that where multiple algorithms are supported the preferred algorithm be selected. These are the minimum baseline algorithms that should be used. A stronger version of these approved algorithms is perfectly acceptable (e.g., AES-256-bit versus 128-bit). The use of any algorithm not listed below will require approval.
1.3 The following block ciphers (symmetric algorithms) are approved for use:
1.4 The following cryptographic checksums/hashing algorithms are approved for use
1.5 The following asymmetric protocols for a digital signature are approved:
1.6 The following key exchange algorithms are approved for use within Resolver:
Message Authentication Codes (MAC)
2.1 Message authentication code
Data at rest:
Data in transit:
Web Application front end should be configured to use ONLY:
Digital signature algorithm:
Recommended for mobile application usage, since more efficient
Public Key size
Recommended for testing environment
Recommended+, Standard for distributed, microservice architecture with one Token issuer and multiple validation points
Recommended+, since more efficient
Page was last updated: April 2017